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Evaluation of Interventions for Climate Change Adaptation: Agriculture, Water and Environmental Protection, Nationally Determined Contributions and National Adaptation Plans

The evaluation of adaptation interventions in the sectors of agriculture, water and coastal protection is part of the DEval evaluation of climate change adaptation interventions. The object of investigation here is interventions in the area of ecosystem-based approaches, infrastructure, technological options, institutional and regulatory framework conditions and approaches to behavioural changes and social transformation. This part of the evaluation focuses on the effectiveness, impact and sustainability of adaptation interventions.


The evaluation comprises a synthesis of project evaluations, a systematic review of international studies as well as a geospatial impact evaluation and comparative case studies.

Findings and Recommendations

Adaptation interventions in the adaptation-relevant sectors of agriculture and water as well as in the area of coastal protection are partially effective.

Nature-based solutions, infrastructure interventions and informational/educational interventions prove to be particularly effective for achieving the objectives of German development cooperation in better responding to shocks and stressors and increasing adaptive capacities. The German adaptation interventions prove to be less effective overall with regard to the objective of enhancing the enabling environment. In order to increase the adaptation effectiveness, German developent cooperation should expand the funding for nature-based solutions and infrastructure interventions.

Adaptation interventions of German development cooperation to support Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) are largely effective.

Today, most countries have at least one adaptation plan and the number of NDCs with adaptation components is also increasingly continuously. Up to now, however, only a few of these interventions have focused on the least developed countries. In order to increase the support to least developed countries, German development cooperation should increase ist funding of direct support to NDCs and NAP processes.

So far, almost all of the support for NDCs and NAP processes is technical cooperation; financial cooperation instruments are hardly used.

In order to achieve the objective of increasing ambitions in the partner countries and contribute to expanding the existing engagement, German development cooperation should check the use of policy-based financing to directly support NDCs and NAP processes and – taking the results into account – strengthen it.


The evaluation was completed in 2023. This is a summary of the results and recommendations; you can find the complete results and recommendations in the report.


Portrait von Dr. Martin Noltze
© DEval

Dr Martin Noltze

Senior Evaluator - Team Leader

Phone: +49 (0)228 336907-934


Portrait von Dr. Sven Harten
© DEval

Dr Sven Harten

Head of Competence Centre for Evaluation Methodology / Deputy Director

Phone: +49 (0)228 336907-950


The Modular Evaluation of Interventions for Climate Change Adaptation

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