Philippines: Environment and rural development
From development cooperation to national policies towards achieving the SDGs
In the scope of the Philippine-German development cooperation, the Environment and Rural Development (EnRD) programme, supported by the GIZ, aimed at improving land use planning and disaster risk management. The motivation of these interventions was the previously fragmented planning and management of land and water bodies, leaving the majority of municipalities with inconsistent, incomplete and not up-to-date land use plans. The urgency of a change in the land use planning approach was increased by aggravating scarcity of land resources, continuing resource degradation and increased risk of natural and environmental hazards in the Philippines.
In this process, the EnRD programme developed the SIMPLE (Sustainable Integrated Management and Planning for Local Government Ecosystems) approach which implemented a participatory land use planning process by letting stakeholders participate and by conducting land use planning from the bottom-up, at village (barangay) and municipal level. Furthermore, the SIMPLE approach had the goal to integrate the planning across ecosystems, from ridge to reef.
The EnRD program has officially ended in late 2015. The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) of the Philippine government is the lead agency in the provision of technical assistance to local government units in the preparation of Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUP) and the regulating body of land use planning and has been closely working with the EnRD programme. The principle of an integrated ecosystems management approach that is participatory in nature was scaled up and enhanced to the Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation Guidelines 2013-14 of the HLURB, putting the implementation on a national level.
The planned impact evaluation aims at measuring the impact of participatory land use planning and comprehensive land use planning including all ecosystems, within the SIMPLE approach and beyond.
The aim of this evaluation is to gather insights on practice and impact of land use planning and management on household, barangay and municipal level. The evaluation objectives and evaluation questions stretch on several levels: First, it aims to analyse whether, to what extent and under what conditions participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management improved land use practices. Second, the impacts of SIMPLE on local governance, disaster risk management, sustainable use of natural resources and well-being of households and communities will be analysed, and factors for high impacts identified. Third, the relevance of participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be assessed. Fourth, relevant aspects for successful diffusion, scaling-up and potential replication of the SIMPLE process will be evaluated.
These four evaluation objectives lead to several evaluation questions:
1. Did participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management improve land use practices?
2. a) Did participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management improve local governance?
b) Did participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management improve disaster risk management?
c) Did participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management lead to more sustainable use of natural resources?
d) Did participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management lead to improved well-being of households and communities?
e) What are the determinants for participatory/comprehensive land use planning and management showing particularly high effects?
3. What measured effects can be attributed to the Sustainable Development Goals?
4. What are relevant aspects for diffusion and scaling-up?